Universal Studios Inc. (also known as Universal Pictures), is an American film studio, owned by Comcast through its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal, and is one of Hollywood's "Big Six" film studios. Its production studios are at 100 Universal City Plaza Drive in Universal City, California. Distribution and other corporate offices are in New York City. Universal Studios is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA). Universal was founded in 1912 by the German Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, and Jules Brulatour. It is the world's third oldest major film studio, after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé. Three of Universal Studios' films—Jaws (1975), E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial (1982), and Jurassic Park (1993) (all of which were directed by Steven Spielberg)–achieved box office records; each became the highest-grossing film ever at the time of its initial release.